Millennial learners: Perceptions and expectations of out-of-class communication

By Carolyn Kim

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Abstract: Millennial learners have grown up in a world drastically different from the faculty who teach their courses. Scholars suggest millennials require unique pedagogical approaches, which extend to the method that faculty use to illustrate immediacy as well as expectations for out-of-class communication (OCC). This study identifies key expectations millennial learners hold for OCC and the perceptions that have led to these increased communication expectations. In particular, this study found that millennial learners have a staunch expectation of OCC in an educational environment due to the fact that they believe OCC increases their individual learning. Thus, their OCC expectations reveal a desire and commitment to a robust education. Findings provide recommendations for best practices and communication of OCC expectations from faculty to millennial learners.

Dr. Carolyn Kim (, APR, is an associate professor at Biola University and serves as the director for the public relations major. Her research specialties include credibility, social media, and public relations education.

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